Alcohol intoxication is a complex of physiological, mental and behavioral disorders that develops after drinking alcohol. A similar condition occurs both in persons with a long experience of drinking intoxicants, and after a single intake of ethanol in a healthy person. With a severe form of poisoning, the development of coma and death is possible.
Distinguish between acute typical and a typical alcohol intoxication. Both types differ in characteristic symptoms, course and methods of treatment.
Simple or typical poisoning develops in individuals who have no experience of addiction. Symptoms of mild alcohol intoxication:
- improved mood
- increased physical activity
- desire to contact other people
- violation of coordination of movements
- emancipation, including in relation to persons of the opposite sex
- increased heart rate
- redness of the skin
- deterioration in coordination
At this stage of alcohol intoxication, memory is preserved.
With moderate ethanol poisoning, behavior becomes unstable, mood changes dramatically. Alcohol intoxication at this stage has the following symptoms:
- maintaining euphoria
- neurological disorders – incoherent speech, disorientation in space, sudden mood swings
- nausea and vomiting
- slurred speech
- difficulty switching attention
- illegibility of handwriting
- after a while, deep sleep.
The next morning, a hangover develops, there are pains, weakness, there is a desire to get drunk. People with alcohol dependence have no memories in healthy patients, the memory is not lost, but the memories are vague.
Alcohol intoxication in severe form is accompanied by impaired consciousness, loss of cognitive and motor functions. The patient does not respond to treatment, the development of coma, incontinence of the anal and urethral sphincter is possible. After a while, a deep sleep sets in. Memories are not saved.
A typical alcohol intoxication develops with a history of traumatic brain injury. There is no joy and pleasure from alcohol. Depression, irritability, aggression towards others and auto-aggression appear, suicide attempts are observed.
Against the background of exhaustion, taking clonidine, somnolent alcohol intoxication develops. There is a sharp immersion in sleep, a transition to a coma is possible. It is impossible to bring the patient to consciousness even when inhaling ammonia vapors. Such symptoms of alcohol intoxication require immediate hospitalization of the addicted person.
Help with alcohol intoxication
Help with ethanol poisoning depends on the stage of alcohol intoxication, the length of service, the presence of the fact of addiction, and the patient’s history. They also take into account the presence of chronic diseases in a person and the conditions under which alcohol was consumed.
In case of mild poisoning, as a rule, specialized assistance is not required. It is necessary to provide rest, an influx of fresh air, if possible, give a warm drink and induce vomiting. If the symptoms intensify, you need to call an ambulance.
At the second stage of alcohol intoxication, home treatment is possible. If there is vomiting with blood, foam from the mouth, with a long experience of addiction, you need to contact a medical institution. In this case, specialized assistance for alcohol intoxication should be provided by a narcologist or resuscitator.
Hospitalization for alcoholics is mandatory in the following cases:
age over 65
a sharp deterioration in the condition after small doses of alcohol development of psychosis, delirium when symptoms of pancreatitis appear with a history of suicide attempts with signs of impaired breathing and cardiac activity.
In case of a severe stage of alcohol intoxication, the addition of signs of drug poisoning, the patient should be taken to the hospital. Before the arrival of the ambulance team, the victim is laid on his side. This will ensure a free outflow of vomit.
Treatment of alcohol intoxication
The tactics of patient management depends on the stage of alcohol intoxication, the history of the addict, the presence of chronic and other concomitant diseases.
For mild to moderate poisoning, detoxification therapy is indicated. Help with alcohol intoxication includes:
- gastric lavage – to clean wash water
- reception of enterosorbents – activated carbon, Enterosgel and their analogues
- saline laxatives – according to indications
- infusion of crystalloid solutions
- forcing diuresis
- the appointment of sedatives, vitamin complexes
- therapy of concomitant diseases.
Treatment of severe alcohol intoxication is carried out in the intensive care unit. In addition to detoxification measures, hyperbaric oxygenation is shown, it is possible to transfer the patient to artificial ventilation of the lungs, catheterization of the bladder.
The prognosis for alcohol intoxication is favorable. An improvement in the condition with mild and medium poisoning is observed within a day. In severe form – within a few days.
With a relapse of a chronic illness caused by alcohol consumption, the prognosis worsens. Typical complications are inflammatory processes in the liver, multiple organ failure, inability to breathe independently, disruption of the cardiovascular system.
After stopping the poisoning, addicts are shown drug treatment of alcoholism using drugs for coding in specialized drug treatment clinics.
Droppers for alcohol intoxication
The infusion of drugs for alcohol intoxication promotes the rapid elimination of toxic substances.
Advantages of drip drug administration:
- drugs go directly into the systemic circulation
- high bioavailability of dropper components
- rapid relief of vomiting and nausea
- prevention of hypovolemia
- reducing the load on the digestive tract
- constant intake of drugs into the body with excruciating nausea and vomiting
- reducing the risk of side effects
- quick relief of the condition, regardless of the severity of the intoxication
- the ability to quickly adjust the composition of the dropper based on the patient’s condition
- reducing the load on the heart and blood vessels
- the use of various combinations of drugs, depending on the stage of alcohol intoxication.
The choice of dropper components, control of their introduction is the prerogative of the doctor. Self-reliance is inappropriate and life-threatening for the patient.
The composition of the droppers for alcohol intoxication:
- glucose and saline
- preparations for hydration – Trisol, Chlosal, Ringer’s liquid
- Hemodesis to improve blood circulation, tissue nutrition and excretion of waste products
- anticonvulsants and sedatives
- means for normalizing acid-base balance – sodium bicarbonate solution to reduce acidosis that develops during ethanol oxidation
- benzodiazepines with alcohol intoxication can stop increased anxiety, fear
- antiarrhythmic drugs
- insulin – to reduce the load on the pancreas and facilitate the absorption of glucose
- antipsychotics – to eliminate withdrawal symptoms, relieve neurogenic pain
- B vitamins, ascorbic acid
With a mild degree of poisoning, infusion treatment is allowed to be carried out at home, but the composition of the dropper is selected by a narcologist. He must personally supervise the patient’s condition during the infusion.
After the relief of the acute phase of alcohol intoxication, therapy of concomitant diseases is carried out. The dependent person is advised to contact the alcoholism coding center for further treatment.
Ethanol poisoning and going to the doctor does not mean an automatic diagnosis of “alcoholic” and publicizing the fact of intoxication. Alcohol intoxication also occurs in healthy patients, but without treatment it can lead to sad consequences.
If, after drinking small doses of alcohol, suspicious symptoms appear, the condition worsens, you should contact a medical institution.
Stopping alcohol intoxication in a dependent person is a way to avoid the development of delirium, binge drinking, organic damage to the liver, kidneys, and other organs and systems. Therapeutic measures in drug treatment clinics begin precisely with detoxification of the body, relief of abstinence. After a comprehensive examination and treatment of concomitant diseases, drug coding is performed.
It is difficult to cure alcoholism . It is almost impossible without the patient’s conscious desire. But the first step to recovery is specialized help for alcohol intoxication.